16 Apr 2021|Gurgaon (Manesar)

Amity Institute of Biotechnology organized guest lecture on Cancer Cluster Experts

Welcome address by Dr. Selvamurthy and Prof. Rajendra Prasad

Amity Institute of Biotechnology organized guest lecture on Cancer Cluster Experts on 16th April 2021 by Dr. Radha Ayyagari, Professor of Ophthalmology and Pathology, Chief of Ophthalmic Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory, Director of Shiley Eye Institute BioBank, UCSD, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA and Dr  ELLORA SEN, Scientist VI & Professor, National Brain Research Centre, India.

The main objective of the guest lecture was to understand the prevalent mutations in eye that result in retinal degeneration and other retinal diseases and how they can be rectified through gene therapy and introduce the students to genetic and molecular mechanisms of Molecular clock in linking inflammation-metabolism axis in cancers.

The talk by Prof. Radha Ayyagari outlined genes associated with recessive Retinal Degeneration and underlying molecular mechanisms. The search for the genetic cause of IRD was limited to the coding region comprising 3% of the genome leaving the remaining 97% unexplored. She also reported the use of whole-exome sequencing coupled with bioinformatics analysis to identify potential novel variants segregating with IRD in large inbred families of different origin.

The talk by Prof. Ellora Sen outlined, the deregulated metabolism characterized by the “Warburg effect” is an essential hallmark of tumor cells. Along with deranged metabolism, inflammation is also regarded as another indispensable participant in tumor progression. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) - the most malignant of brain cancers characterized by aberrant metabolic profile, is largely refractory to current therapeutic regimens. In addition to aberrant metabolism, global epigenetic abnormalities in conjunction with numerous genetic alterations promote glioma progression. Also, accumulating evidences are linking metabolism and activation of inflammatory pathways in the progression of metabolic disorders. As metabolic reprogramming deregulates a number of cellular functions and since targeting metabolic remodelers is regarded as a potential anti-cancer strategy. 

The rapid glycolytic rate in glioblastoma is concomitant with elevated levels of hexokinase-2 (HK2) that catalyzes the first step of the glycolytic pathway. In addition to its ability to extensively metabolise glucose for aiding increased energy demands, cancer cells are also under oxidative stress associated with increased production of ROS. As considerable overlap between metabolism, inflammatory responses and redox homeostasis exists; we investigated the role of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in connecting these processes.

Also the talk by Prof. Ellora Sen outlined one of the host factors critical for COVID-19 pathogenesis which they have identified is high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) to be crucial for regulating susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. COVID19 disease severity is correlated with heightened inflammatory responses, and HMGB1 is an important extracellular mediator in inflammation processes. She has evaluated the effect of HMGB1 inhibitor Glycyrrhizin on the cellular perturbations in lung cells expressing SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins.

Overall the lecture was very informative for all the faculties.

Radha Ayyagari delivering her talk on Genetics and molecular mechanisms underlying retinal degenerations

Prof. Ellora Sen, delivering her talk on Molecular clock in linking inflammation-metabolism axis in cancers